BIPOLAR DISORDER ( Causes, Symptoms and Treatment )

Image result for BIPOLAR DISORDERBipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. There are four basic types of bipolar disorder; all of them involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. Bipolar disorder usually has a negative effect on the victim, the family, as well as the community at large. It has an enormous economic burden in terms of expenditure at the health care centers, it has a direct costs of prolonged hospitalization during acute episodes while the  Indirect costs are a major contributor to the overall economic burden. Similarly, there are high suicide rate among the patients, early death, unemployment or underemployment, it puts undue pressure on the care providers due to a combination of the illness with associated medical and psychiatric conditions as a result of the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring as a result of the bipolar disorder 1,2
Studies conducted in Nigeria and Ethiopia indicated a lifetime prevalence estimate of 0.1 % to 1.83 for bipolar disorder. While a misdiagnosis rate of bipolar disorder was up to 36.2 %.
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks.
There are four basic types of bipolar disorder; all of them involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. These moods range from periods of extremely “up,” elated, and energized behavior (known as manic episodes) to very sad, “down,” or hopeless periods (known as depressive episodes). Less severe manic periods are known as hypomanic episodes.
Bipolar I Disorder— defined by manic episodes that last at least 7 days, or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. Usually, depressive episodes occur as well, typically lasting at least 2 weeks. Episodes of depression with mixed features (having depression and manic symptoms at the same time) are also possible.
Bipolar II Disorder— defined by a pattern of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes, but not the full-blown manic episodes described above.
Cyclothymic Disorder (also called cyclothymia)— defined by numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms as well numerous periods of depressive symptoms lasting for at least 2 years (1 year in children and adolescents). However, the symptoms do not meet the diagnostic requirements for a hypomanic episode and a depressive episode.
·         Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders— defined by bipolar disorder symptoms that do not match the three categories listed above.
Signs and Symptoms
People with bipolar disorder experience periods of unusually intense emotion, changes in sleep patterns and activity levels, and unusual behaviors. These distinct periods are called “mood episodes.” Mood episodes are drastically different from the moods and behaviors that are typical for the person. Extreme changes in energy, activity, and sleep go along with mood episodes.
Sometimes a mood episode includes symptoms of both manic and depressive symptoms. This is called an episode with mixed features. People experiencing an episode with mixed features may feel very sad, empty, or hopeless, while at the same time feeling extremely energized.
Bipolar disorder can be present even when mood swings are less extreme. For example, some people with bipolar disorder experience hypomania, a less severe form of mania. During a hypomanic episode, an individual may feel very good, be highly productive, and function well. The person may not feel that anything is wrong, but family and friends may recognize the mood swings and/or changes in activity levels as possible bipolar disorder. Without proper treatment, people with hypomania may develop severe mania or depression.

Identification /Diagnosis of bipolar disorders

Proper diagnosis and treatment help people with bipolar disorder may help them live a healthy and productive life. An appointment with the doctor or other licensed mental health professional may quickly establish the absence or the presence of a bipolar disorder. The mental health specialist may conduct a mental health evaluation in order to establish the diagnosing and recommend appropriate treatments for bipolar disorder.
Initial manifestation of bipolar disorders

Image result for BIPOLAR DISORDERA person having bipolar disorder may believe s(he) is famous, rich, or has strange powers, he hear god speaks or s(he) speak to dead people. Also such persons may be depressed and may believe that he or she is abandoned, poor or that he or she is a criminal.
Sometimes people with bipolar disorder with psychotic symptoms are sometimes misdiagnosed as having schizophrenia.
Similar diseases observed among people with bipolar disorders
1.      Anxiety: Anxiety disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often diagnosed among people with bipolar disorder.
2.      Substance Abuse: People with bipolar disorder may also misuse alcohol or drugs, have relationship problems, or perform poorly in school or at work. Family, friends and people experiencing symptoms may not recognize these problems as signs of a major mental illness such as bipolar disorder.
Other major Causes  of bipolar disorders
There are many factors contribute to the illness and contribute to the disease development.
1.      Your brain structure and functioning in an unhealthy manner may predispose one to bipolar disorder
2.      Genetics: Your parental genes may be at a higher risk for bipolar disorder compared to others e.g Some people’s  parental gene has a  higher risk for developing bipolar disorder especially if one member of that family has had the disease before at some time in the past  such persons has  a higher tendency of developing the disease compare to those whose genes are healthier. It is also important to note that genes are not the only contributing factor but it can add to the risk for bipolar disorder.
3.      Disease history of the family: Bipolar disorder tends to run in families. Peoples with a family member with bipolar disorder has a higher possibility of having the disease, compared with children who do not have a family history of the disorder. However, it is important to note that most people with a family history of bipolar disorder will not develop the illness.

Treatments and Therapies for bipolar disorsders

Bipolar disorder is a lifetime sickness, however, an active treatment strategy involving a combination of drugs and psychiatric therapy and an interactive session will help reduce the severity of the disease. Events of madness (dissociation from reality) and depression typically return with time. Amid events of bipolar disorder sometimes they are free of mood variations, but some people may have re-occurring symptomsin such cases, a sustained indefinate and  continuous management may go a long way in controlling these symptoms.

Commbipolar disorder drugs

There exixsts several drugs used in controlling the symptoms of bipolar disorder however an array of drugs are usually used before identifying a more compliant one based on the clients biological system.
Drugs for bipolar disorder treatments include:
1.      Moodstabilizers
2.      Atypical antipsychotics
3.      Antidepressant drugs

1.      Regular medical checkups to enable early diagnosis of the diseases
2.      Improved social support and care from the loved ones in order to keep watch over and quickly assist those see to exhibit any signs of bipolar disorders
3.      Funding of brain research must be increased; care for patients with brain disorders as well as teaching at medical schools and other health related educations must be quantitatively and qualitatively improved, including psychological treatments

4.      self-management and targeted psycho-social and drug treatment in the form of adherence to drug usage instructions ass directed by the health care provider. 

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