Are you Breast Health Aware?




Are you Breast Health Aware?
Cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells in an organ or tissue go out of control and grow and increase in number for no useful purpose.  They result in deleterious effects on the host due to their invasive and metastasizing character.
Mortality and morbidity arising from non communicable diseases like breast cancer have continued to pose as threat to the life of women. It is the most frequent cancer among women between 15 and 44 years of age ( Goumbri/Lompo O M et al, 2009).
With more than 10 million new cases every year, cancer has become one of the most devastating diseases worldwide (National Cancer Institute, 2014).


The causes and types of cancer vary in different geographical regions but in most countries, there is hardly a family without a cancer victim.
The disease burden is immense, not only for affected individuals but also for their relations, friends  and often compounded by poor access to surgical care , infrastructure and human resource deficit in Sub-sahara Africa
At the household and community level, cancer poses considerable challenges for the health care systems in poor and rich countries alike


RISK FACTORS
1.       Infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
2.       Early age at first sexual intercourse
3.       Sexual promiscuity
4.       High parity
5.       Family history of breast cancer
6.       Alcohol and cigarette consumption
7.       Low socioeconomic status
8.       Breast cancer primarily effects women but about 1 percent of all cases effect men
9.       Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death in women next to lung cancer
10.   An abnormal, uncontrolled cell growth arising in the breast tissue

The Breast
Ø  The breasts are made of fat, glands, and connective (fibrous) tissue
Ø  The breast has several lobes, which are divided into lobules and end in the milk glands
Ø  Tiny ducts run from the many tiny glands, connect together, and end in the nipple
Ø  These ducts are where 78% of breast cancers occur.  This is known as infiltrating ductal cancer
Ø  Cancer developing in the lobules is termed infiltrating lobular cancer. About 10-15% of breast cancers are of this type.
Ø  Another type of breast cancer is inflammatory breast cancer (Often Misdiagnosed and dangerous)
Ø  Rare, serious, aggressive form of breast cancer
Ø  Looks red (erythema), feels warm
Ø  Thickening of skin
Ø  Ridges, welts and hives may be observed
Ø  Skin may look wrinkled
Ø  Sometimes misdiagnosed as infection



                                                     Inflamatory breast cancer



Other causes of cancer

1.       Role of heredity – Genetic factors ± virus infection can predispose to cancer, e.g. a number of neoplasms and pre-cancerous conditions particularly Xeroderma pigmentosum, retinoblastoma and multiple polyposis of the of the colon have strong hereditary factors.
2.       Role of Environment, e.g. Hormonal status and Nutrition, Age, Sex, Diet, parity and race may influence the development of cancer.
Types of cacers
INoninvasive: cancer has not spread from original tissue (stage 0)
3.       Invasive: cancer cells have spread to surrounding
4.        tissue (stages -Iv
5.        





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